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/lang/ - Languages

Language Learning and (Serious) Discussion


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File: 1426799185291.png (6.32 KB, 267x189, 89:63, a conlang.png)


Does this board support the learning and/or the construction of fictional or artificial languages?
14 posts and 5 image replies omitted. Click reply to view.






the Jews here do. Israeli ( it's not really hebrew) is a conlang. the Jews won't answer one simple question about Israeli, how much of it constructed? every post I've read on the question ends the same, a jew brings up other languages and avoids the question.

is it so larpy they can't admit its mostly fake?



It's pretty well known (well im jew) that root vocabulary is directly taken from old hebrew (which was often written with vowel marks so not even that is a real question) but syntax logic behind modern hebrew is mostly transplanted from yiddish (biblical hebrew for example was verb-initial). also, many words were calqued from hebrew roots based on model of other semitic languages (aramaic or arabic, generally), and some were plainly reassigned in meaning based on association.

I'd say it has a similar status to manx, a language that was preserved in written form but nobody used it for quite some time really.


but then – let me go full relativist – isn't every standard literary language in a sense a conlang? I mean, someone had to take a cross-section of various dialects used and construct a standardised form that conforms to a set of dialects well enough that it can be used as an intermediary language between them. for example, german itself has a lot of internal inconsistencies where specific words were adopted directly from northern varieties, so the high german consonant shift is achieved to variable degrees in different words.


File: fbeec08f7980a6b⋯.pdf (1.91 MB, maly_princ.pdf)

Le Petit Prince translated by Jan van Steenbergen into interslavic.

File: 1417018840958.jpg (28.63 KB, 576x432, 4:3, gur-hasidm-arad-home-picke….jpg)


Any Yiddish speakers or students of Yiddish?

Vu bist du lebendik?
Iz Yiddish deyn ershter shprakh?
Bist du Hasid?
10 posts and 1 image reply omitted. Click reply to view.


ich will jiddisch lernen!

how easy is it for a german speaker



>Vu bist du lebendik?

איך בין אַמעריקאַנער

>Iz Yiddish deyn ershter shprakh?

נײן, איך האָב ייִדיש אַז צװײטשפּראָך

>Bist du Hasid?

בין נישקין ייִד



It's literally Hebonics.


Yiddish is German, specifically the dialects primarily spoken in the southeastern areas of Germany, with Hebrew words and terminology thrown in. Also, it has a simplified grammar.

Jews who spoke Yiddish also ended up moving out to areas in Eastern Europe where it underwent a similar pattern.



German is not a single language.

t. southeast germany liver (it's called bavaria you ignoramus)

File: 4a665b4b5ef44d6⋯.png (5.1 KB, 306x264, 51:44, Spanishimage-1.png)


Hola anons, vamos a hablar un poco de español.

>Chileno no se considera español, es una subespecie de proto-lenguaje

Para los gringos:

>I dont speak taco


>Hola yo mucho hablo español bueno

>vuelve a practicar en el taco bell

>Idk how to speak mexican

>mexican isn't a language, as well as latino isn't a race



>implying mexican isn't a language

it already exhibits several features specific to it that, were it a slavic language, it would already be considered a separate language

or take afrikaans for example, it's similarly divergent from standard dutch yet unlike mexican it's already considered a separate language




disculpa mi inglés, yo comprendo pero no hablo

t. lingüisto comparativo

File: 693e448e3e30a43⋯.jpg (132.28 KB, 1280x951, 1280:951, 7772e6b30fffd44c42392c6a52….jpg)


Intro: Hans Ørberg's "Lingua latina per se illustrata" is entirely written in latin that becomes gradually more complex. The meaning of new grammar and vocabulary is made clear by context, and pronunciation and understanding rather than translation are stressed. Wikipedia calls it this method "contextual induction".

>Roma in Italia est. Roma in Europa est. Graecia in Europa est. Roma et Graecia in Europa sunt. Hispania quoque in Europa est. Roma et Graecia et Hispania in Europa sunt.

Another example of a text that uses contexual induction is "cornelia", also written in latin. This text is furthermore based on word occurence: more frequently used words are introduced sooner.

>Haec puella est Cornelia. Cornelia non est alta. Cornelia non est magna. Cornelia est puella parva.

Tl;dr: language learning text(book)s that gradually become more complex and teach through context.

Question: are there sources or textbooks like these in other languages?



YouTube embed. Click thumbnail to play.


this shit is uneffective, i know, but i think this would help me with some stuff im trying to learn when i'm not sleeping

do you have a good resource of audios like this?

>use google

google is full of people who wants to sell you this shit

>lurk youtube

youtube is full of shit

i'm trying to learn italian, russian, german, jappanese, latin, arab, hebew and guarani


Real life isn't like Dexter's Lab

File: 1449980489937.webm (7.04 MB, 640x360, 16:9, Haiyore Nyaruko-san W OP.webm)


Post the homophones you know, preferably from different languages.

>"三十一 ", 31 in nip (san juu ichi)

>"sanduíche", sandwich in Portuguese

>tfw can't watch nyaruko-san OP because it sounds like "sandwich sandwich"

>"Суки", bitches in russian, plural of сука (sukee)

>"好き", adjective which means like or love in japanese (suki)

>"く", Japanese sound effect used as laugh(kukuku) or as a groan (ku)

>cu, asshole in Portuguese

>"O pai", something like "Hey dad" in Portuguese

>おっぱい, boobs in nip (oppai)

>manco, someone who can't walk properly in Portuguese

>まんこ, pussy in nip

29 posts and 6 image replies omitted. Click reply to view.


File: fbe7564c6639afa⋯.png (385.89 KB, 792x675, 88:75, Guti symbol in Izeh.png)



But wait, doesn't that mean that you're now saying you're at least half-Mongol? I mean, if every woman in every village was raped by Mongols (and assuming most got pregnant and didn't have miscarriages, and the kids weren't killed for being rape babies or whatever) and they didn't go out of their way to have babies with outsiders (as you implied endogamy), they'd be 50% Mongol since all the fathers were Mongols… so are you Mongol in denial, or did the Mongols not rape literally every woman in every village? :^)



Hahahaha, oh man, I looked at that place on Google Earth and I hope I'm hallucinating…

>pic related



你个 (ni ge) in Mandarin - "you guys"

sounds like nigga



ni ga in Slovene – "(he) is not (there)", quite commonly used when you can't find what you're looking for (with all objects that have masculine grammatical gender)

sounds like nigga


I don;'t know if this counts but "Saruman" from Lord of the Rings roughly translates to "monkeypussy" is Japanese

File: 1456871765211.png (563.81 KB, 590x421, 590:421, coffee_map.png.CROP.promo-….png)


Hey let's have a thread for this.

Basically everything is welcome;

false cognates (words in different languages that look like they could easily be cognates, but knowing the actual etymology tells you they aren't)

distant cognates (I'm saying distant because the interesting part here is where a word travels to the other side of the continent)

false friends (words that are either homophones or close homophones in two languages, but have wildly different meanings — but sometimes they may be true cognates and differ in meaning due to semantic drift)

pic related, cognates like that (or fucking ananas) aren't interesting and therefore not welcome

20 posts and 1 image reply omitted. Click reply to view.



I had a similar experience explaining a romani studies special snowflake from US how gyps live in the balkans. Basically, he learned that they're discriminated against by the governments and that they're forced to live in trashyards, completely ignoring that they usually have special programmes for education but tend to prefer traditional lifestyle of thieves and petty criminals, and also getting pregnant by age of 11 so there's no time to finish school, and that they live in trashyards because they bring trash to where they live, so a trashyard builds around their homes and not the other way around.



>also, I got a crazy idea, one could use wordfilters to model regular sound changes on here

How would that work?


I remember reading an article that said sub-Saharian African languages lack the word for "promise" and other words for expressing concepts like future action or big numbers. Abstract concepts in general. The author concluded that since Africans lack the words to express these concepts, they lack the concepts themselves and their thought processes are different from ours. Do you agree with that?

>banned for "promoting a racist pseudoscientific agenda"

Classic reddit.



>or big numbers

Well native European languages also lacked words for numbers further than thousand, and considering that words for thousand aren't cognates (unlike words for hundred), they are probably originally just phrases that meant a big number (compare channish gorillion). Upwards the number systems are all borrowings from a single scientific Latin one.

In most big African languages numerals work very much alike in European languages, around 1000 shit starts breaking down. Then you have outliers like Yoruba which use somewhat clumsy systems; Yoruba can count to 20000 normally and 20000 is one bag. Then you count bags and the remainder.

Future action? Depends what you consider future action. English uses the modal verbs will and shall, as well as non-modal verb go, to express future action; as such, the construction semantically indicates intent and not pure future action. Does that mean English cannot express future action? Even more so, Finnish doesn't have future tense or a future construction at all.

So I'd say those aren't very strong arguments, but still, I cannot disregard the possibility that humans do not experience reality the same way.

While we're at racist linguistics and brain development, there's a pretty clear correlation between tonality of languages and distribution of alhahaes of genes ASPM and MCPH1, both are crucial in brain development (defective mutations result in microcephaly). Specifically the distribution correctly predicts tonality in subsaharan Africa and east Asia.




>how would that work?


the default script models regular development from latin to portuguese. but syntax would be way more complex if one wanted to implement this on 8chan


pensja (similar to pension) in polish means salary

File: 4a637eee21cab5b⋯.gif (41.74 KB, 350x216, 175:108, Lojban Logo.gif)


I don't know much about it but have been casually studying via Memrise and a few YouTube videos. There are aspects I like and aspects I dislike. Overall I like the vocabulary - many of the words I've learned just feel right, like prenu and xunre and vajni to name a few simple ones - but how abstract everything is bugs me. I like the simpler grammar of my mother tongue, English.

So yeah. What do you guys think?



Meme language that suffers from the same problem as all constructed languages except maybe those that are artistically crafted – that it is clumsy and tough to poetically express in. Especially its aversion to ambiguity is what makes it bad in my opinion; wittiness often relies exactly on that, on keeping a shrouded second meaning in a sentence that is hidden from plain sight. This makes Lojban a language that is impossible to write poetry, tell jokes, or properly make lewd remarks in.



I'm definitely not a linguistic expert but I think Lojban's lack of ambiguity thing is bullshit. A sentence can be quite ambiguous unless you make it quadruple the length with little article words to specify things.

You make a good point.



That would be vagueness, not ambiguity.



Ah, yes. Thanks.


File: fbae262bc0796b4⋯.jpg (39.08 KB, 540x960, 9:16, 16299360_10211426511516603….jpg)

For a great example of ambiguity the kind of that the whole construction of Lojban and even just Esperanto is so opposed to: something I came across today.

File: 1415568009429.jpg (182.8 KB, 1024x683, 1024:683, business.jpg)


I find funny how different languages have very creative ways of being unrespectful or rude. So let's have a thread with this dark jewels of our native or target languages. Please add (for added hilarity) literal translations and it's equivalent in as many languages as you can.

該死的(gai si de)
Literally "should die" is the equivalent of "Damn it!" in English or "Puta madre!" in (Argentinian) Spanish.

蕩婦(dang fu)
Literally "lustful woman", equivalent of "Slut" in English or "Puta" in Spanish.

你媽的(ni ma de)
Literally "your mother's". I don't know it's equivalent in English but in some places of Argentina almost the same expression is used "A tu madre!". It's obviously an (unspecified) insult to the mother of the other person.
48 posts and 5 image replies omitted. Click reply to view.



I can't believe I brought up tchew without talking about one of the most common insults "tchewplot," which means asshole



>"connard" (m) (asshole, literally "he-cunt")





Comfy Korean time?


>me cago en la leche

in spanish it means

>i shit into your milk


my favourite

Naj ti ohrovt zgnije, govedo neotesano!


>May thy sprouts rot, thou crude cattle!


you may wish to do so. someone has been going around and wiping small boards. if you dont believe me, look at these boards.





Be vigilant, moderation, or this could be your fate. reminder that you can limit how many threads are made in an hour, as well as disable posting duplicates of images. you may wish to turn these features on during hours in which no moderation is available.

thankfully, beta.8archive.moe is back up, so the threads can theoretically be re-posted if anyone's autistic enough to do so

1 post omitted. Click reply to view.



Thanks for the warning, I wasn't aware of this threat. I thought the spammer was only targeting a few specific boards that he didn't like. Anyway, I've changed the number of max threads per hour to 1, disabled posting duplicate images and enabled captcha for thread creation. I'll also be keeping a close eye on the board.


I agree that 8chan is getting worse, at least the community is, but where do you suggest that we go?



Honestly I don't know, I frequent 76chan but 1) in that case /lang/ wouldn't have its own board, threads would go to /int/ and /his/ if it doesn't get deleted (trial board right now), 2) it's kinda shitpostey at the moment

endchan has a /lang/ board up as well, it's linkspammed and dead atm



There's also the problem that moving to a chan with an even smaller community than 8chan would probably kill /lang/ once and for all.



We need a lang chan




File: a804c4a0e85c72f⋯.jpg (6.41 KB, 252x189, 4:3, 1239845627864.jpg)


Quale di voi autistici ha fatto questo?




File: 1424233869369.jpg (216.7 KB, 796x928, 199:232, 1396208648614.jpg)


Who here likes to create neologism? I'm very fascinated by the idea of lingual evolution and new words entering common usage, and thus I really enjoy learning and attempting to create new words. How about you guys?

noisivelt (noun) - any unpleasant noise, often used to refer to music

latigid - highly devoted to a cause
7 posts omitted. Click reply to view.


>if you use more words to try and explain something it could become confusing and counterproductive
On the contrary, more words mean less ambiguity, therefore less confusion.

>they should be efficient

I don't really think efficiency is all in a language, aesthetic value should be taken into consideration as well.



What do you like more?:

"Ice" or "Water below its freezing temperature at which point it becomes solid"

Less is more, the less words are in the way between whatyou want to express and you express the better, and as i said before it's not abour it being simplistic it's about being efficient.

If those new words are necessary then they are welcome otherwise it's counterproductive.

Aesthetics are too ambiguous and subjective.



But neologisms always add to a language. they'd never take away



Overload of neologisms means you aren't employing regular word formation. If you add too many neologisms, you're killing the language's ability to use its grammar to form new words based on underlying concepts.

For example, using the neologisms in the OP:

>noisivelt (noun) - any unpleasant noise, often used to refer to music

a language could, however, employ a suffix that denotes unpleasantness; for example, Italian uses -accio/a, and French uses -asse. Tracing back the suffix to Latin reveals the source is the same suffix that resulted in English -aceous (-aceus), denoting a specific quality linked to the noun from which it is form; however, since that is already used, the Old French form -ace might be the most fit candidate for that in English. Therefore, since we need to use a Latin word root to fit with a Latin-sourced suffix;

>sonace (noun) /'sɒn.ɪs/ - any unpleasant noise, often used to refer to music

>latigid - highly devoted to a cause

Again, we need a suffix denoting intenseness; an augmentative fit for an adjective. Dutch, for example, uses bloed- and steen-, the first one has a pretty direct cognate in English as the adverb bloody when it modifies an adjective, and the second one, as you might have guessed it, is cognate to stone. We could also use the German prefix ur-, however, this one is mainly used to denote primordialness more than extreme intensity. But, if we're building on model of Latin, we can use the obvious -issimus, which is use to form superlative form of the adjective in Latin. In English, that would be -issimous with a stress shift, therefore;

>devotissimous /dɪ.və.'tɪʃ.ɪ.məs/ - highly devoted to a cause

You will probably agree that by deriving a regular way to form those words, we have added more to the language than we would by simply making up a neologism.



i like the concept, but have only had moderate sucess in memeing words and phrases from obscure sources.

File: 0df28212159d1f2⋯.png (225.57 KB, 337x592, 337:592, 1464145655527.png)


The FSI courses are all public domain. Pretty bland but very useful stuff.


File: 1445788555174.jpg (389.38 KB, 1127x1204, 161:172, magazine-of-art-1853-016-d….jpg)



>Many languages, including such early languages as Hebrew and Sanskrit, were created by formulaic manipulation of Basque vocabulary. However, the name Basque, or more accurately Bask because there is no Q in the language, did not exist at the time this language invention was done. There must have been an earlier form of this language available to the linguists doing this manipulation. But where did it come from and what was it like?

>The research done by Dr. N. Lahovary and published in his book "Dravidian Origins and the West" shows conclusively that Basque and the old Dravidian languages of India are closely related. Nyland’s research into the Ainu language of Japan shows the same. The Ainu are thought to have been isolated in the Far East for as long as 8,000 years, yet they retain an early, non-agglutinated, form of Saharan, thus the original language must have been very old. These startling finds seem to indicates that the precursor of the Basque language was spoken very early in Europe, Africa and Asia, just like Genesis 11:1 tells us: "Now the whole world spoke one language". Nyland suggested that the forerunner of the Basque, Dravidian and Ainu languages was the Saharan language and that the language spoken in the beautifully painted cathedral caves in southern France and northern Spain was an early form of the same. However, this early form of the language cannot have been the one used by the early religious scholars doing the inventing of new languages such as Sanskrit. They used a later, manipulated, form that was constructed with agglutination. It employed the vowel-consonant-vowel interlocking principle.

>There seems little doubt that the Basque language is a direct descendant of this original Saharan language and that this language has not changed very much for several millennia, probably because of the extremely careful oral transmission traditions used in their educational system, passing the language on from generation to generation without changes.

Also, I just learned that laranja in Basque is totally not a loan and is a native word, despite thatPost too long. Click here to view the full text.

6 posts omitted. Click reply to view.



ayy lmao



seems legit


File: 999aee66fe2abee⋯.png (22.5 KB, 207x239, 207:239, 999aee66fe2abee82d7f8a1216….png)

What a retard



>He thinks the book of genesis talks about the pre-diluvian world

The only ones who had that kind of knowledge were the Sumerians and the Egyptians…




This makes the Celtic From The West (Cuncliffe & Koch) theory more compelling imo.

File: 1423318271010.png (16 KB, 250x217, 250:217, 250px-Slovak_alphabet.png)


So, why don't you speak Slovak yet?

23 posts and 5 image replies omitted. Click reply to view.


Are there anymore good sources for learning Slovak? This feels like the most difficult language to learn because of the lack of resources



Ha, try finding resources for Gutian.



Date a Slovak. It worked for a buddy of mine.



Just google "slovak language learning pack" or "slovak language torrent".


Why would you want to learn Gutian?


File: 696a8ee71e8732b⋯.jpg (162.76 KB, 800x600, 4:3, slovak girl.jpg)


>Date a Slovak. It worked for a buddy of mine.

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