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/lang/ - Languages

Language Learning and (Serious) Discussion


Winner of the 77nd Attention-Hungry Games
/x/ - Paranormal Phenomena and The RCP Authority

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1. Global rules apply, obviously

2. Keep it (mostly) language-related

3. No /pol/ or /leftypol/ turfing

4. 死なないでください

OP as it was on the 17th of June 2018

Since the previous BO hadn't logged in for months, I went ahead and claimed the board. If that bothers you, feel free to complain in this thread.

Changes in board settings:

>forced anonymous turned off

>... no longer automatically converted to …

>bans will be public

>bump limit increased to 750 (the maximum)

>all wordfilters removed

Other than that, nothing really changes.

EDIT on the 4th of December 2018:

>added rules

EDIT on the 24th of April 2019:

>teh purgening

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Post last edited at



Kill yourself, nigger.

File: 900ab42d591311f⋯.png (73.57 KB, 864x719, 864:719, europe15.png)


I'd thought I'd start a discussing the many languages of Europe. Plus just spreading knowledge of the fact of the existence.

I'll even start with a controversial fact:

France is the only country in Europe today to still commit Linguicide. Many languages of France are banned, even in privet situations. In 2001 a Breton TV station wanted to be created in which shows would be dubbed & subbed into Breton. Paris was furious and banned the station. Saying that French is the only language allowed to be dubbed in and the Breton cannot do that with Breton because they are "French".

Imagine if that happened today with the Welsh in the UK. It wouldn't be tolerated by the world that the British Government was doing such acts.

But France has gotten away with it. Breton and other languages such as Occitan are dying, fast. They won't be around in a few generations.

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File: c06ef054b91de29⋯.jpg (174.45 KB, 800x927, 800:927, 06ef054b91de29c6f5c208d98c….jpg)


>eastern parts of Flanders: "Dutch"

>western parts of Flanders: "Flemish"



It's like Ireland. Census give 80%+ people listing Belarusian as native language, yet they don't speak it if younger than ~50 years or so, outside of schools or some cultural festivals.

They don't speak Russian proper too, anyway. Belarusian phonetics and 'weird' words thrown in cause much confusion for visiting Muscovites (my wife and her relatives still don't understand half of what my family members say to them, lol). If they ever heard proper Belarusian, not some intermediary dialect, they'd mistake it for Polish or Lithuanian or anything. So kinda like Irish English.

Thing is, speaking proper Russian was prestigious in the late USSR, and as the state is still a soviet dictatorship run by 60+ yers sovoks, both local authoritarians and immigrant Ryssa scum care to demonstrate their Russian-ness as a badge of honor.

Even though Luka himself couldn't speak proper Russian until mid-00s I believe. There was that incident when he tried to say in Russian "I regularly scrutinize my parliament members and know who can lie to me and who can't" but with Belarusian phonetics it turned into literally "I regularly fuck the parliament and know who allows me mouthfucking and who doesn't".



Who the fuck cares bout your opinions. We here sure don't. Belarus and Belarusians are a fact, deal with it.


Should note: Livonian is a dead language now, pretty recently actually, in 2013.

Võro is alive and well, however. That map also lacks the Seto language, which is closely related to Võro but not quite the same and is notable regardless.


>Also, parts of Estonia in the east are like 100% Russian

Not quite, there are areas with large Russian majority populations but I don't know of basically anywhere that is 100% Russian. The only really notable Russian majority place in Estonia is Narva, which is quite a large city with an almost 90% Russian population.


File: 194cd9c842b4fe1⋯.jpg (78.61 KB, 474x527, 474:527, mevrouw.jpg)

dutch is a hilarious language


File: d9181b1d32f064e⋯.jpg (33.18 KB, 1280x720, 16:9, an absolutely absoluted pi….jpg)

>tfw looking up the etymologies of a dozen Finnish words

>mfw all of them turned out to be Swedish loanwords

I shouldn't even be surprised at this point, but it just makes me so fucking mad.


Oh, ok. I thought the rural parts in the east were full of Russians? It could've been a Russian that told me that, though, so maybe it was propaganda.


I'm a "native speaker" of Romanian but not very good at it, can understand normal conversations (as long as they don't get too technical) and mostly express myself (again, as long as I don't try getting too technical), but looking to expand in a more academic/educated direction and prevent the little I do have from attritioning away. Any Romanian websites, forums, books, videos, etc. where I can expose myself more to the language welcome and appreciated.



I've never really been into Romanian so I can only suggest what's worked for me with other languages:

>google site:youtube.com "[sentence in said language]"

This generally works for finding news clips or channels, etc. with certain kinds of sentences or vlogs and such with certain kinds of sentences, etc.

>google filetype:pdf "[sentence in said language]"

You might get books or newspapers or whatever, depending on the kind of sentence you searched.

>google site:academia.edu [language] [feature]

This may be useful if you want to get autistically specific descriptions and explanations of individual things in the language. For example, site:academia.edu Romanian irrealis moods, which based on a quick glance doesn't come up with anything exclusively about Romanian but rather stuff comparing its system to other languages.

>literally just google the word for "forum(s)" or "chat" in said language

Pretty obvious, so you probably tried that already, but it's the most logical way to find forums where people use the language in question. I have no idea what kind of stuff Romanian-speakers discuss online, but there's probably some community somewhere that has similar interests to yours.

More generally, you can just google things with quote marks to get exact matches (or use the "verbatim" setting), which can get you results like forums where people posted the exact sentence or some articles or something. (If you don't use Google, I'm sure DuckDuckGo or whatever has similar functions.) Hopefully this was helpful, but probably not.

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Hey let's have a thread for this.

Basically everything is welcome;

false cognates (words in different languages that look like they could easily be cognates, but knowing the actual etymology tells you they aren't)

distant cognates (I'm saying distant because the interesting part here is where a word travels to the other side of the continent)

false friends (words that are either homophones or close homophones in two languages, but have wildly different meanings — but sometimes they may be true cognates and differ in meaning due to semantic drift)

pic related, cognates like that (or fucking ananas) aren't interesting and therefore not welcome

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And I mean, even in that clip it was actually not a Nazi swastika. It was literally as non-Nazi as a swastika could be...

>straight (not tilted)

>purple (not the Nazis' favourite colour)

>no circular background

...but maybe that was the point and it was actually deeper than "lmfao we're making Nazi jokes now". Maybe it was top tier social commentary about Nazi paranoia that went over the intended audience's heads (or did it?). Or maybe I'm thinking too deep into this.



Chuvash is Ughur Turkic. All the other extant languages are Oghuz. The binary division exists because there's a rhotic sound change from s->r in Chuvash. Sibilants are in fact the second most common cause of rhotic consonants in diachronic typological perspective. They first kind of rhoticism is from intervocalic dental plosives. The word *Oghus means clan or tribe. The Oghur Turks are more westerly than the Oghuz Turks who migrated to Europe with the Seljluks (Turks, Turkmens, Azeris) and Golden Horde (Tartars, Kipchaks). They are presumed to have overtook the remnant Oghurs: Chuvash, Huns, Volga Bulgars and Old Bulgars.

The oldest attested Turkic languages are all Oghuz and the most archaic have been found in Outer Mongolia. Because the Swadesh correspondence statistic between Chuvash and Oghuz is so low, there is no way the family is younger than Germanic (Oghur Turkic or "Common Turkic" is younger than Germanic however). Thus any Germanic borrowings into Turkic must occur after the Proto-Turkic stage into individual branches of Turkic. No exceptions. For this reason, the Turkish and Chuvash words cannot be cognate reflexes of a Germanic word like the German suggested above. Adam Hyllested's multikulti theory is the inversion of this with the original word supposedly being Turkic rather than Germanic.

> If you let them publish their shit and tear it apart afterwards like you'd tear apart any bullshit, they'll have no excuse and even the wider public may see that their accusations of being excluded are baseless and that in many cases they're no different from flat earthers, etc.

If not asking for censorship. I just find it annoying when bullshiters play fast and loose with the methodological standards of a science. In historical linguistics, reconstruction follows standard assumptions. First among these is the exceptionlessness of sound laws. You don't get to pick and choose.

This is happening in all the sciences and it's always fucking political. We're in the age of "values over facts".

> Is he, though? I know nothing aPost too long. Click here to view the full text.


File: e6ef74fbdb8c7f2⋯.png (1.11 MB, 666x784, 333:392, we (really) wuz kaisers n ….png)


Yeah, I suppose there's an innocence to the scene as well.

The books are from the 1960s when psychoanalyzing people you've never met was vogue. I'd give you the names but I never actually bookmarked them.

This is a Kushite swastika dated to II. AD from the Shabul cemetery.





**Oghuz Turkic or "Common Turkic" is younger than Germanic however

**Shablul cemetery in Egypt north of the second cataract

And since I'm triple posting, better go all in.

Too much of the last post relies on assertion and foreknowledge so here is a relative chronology of events:

>Turkic breaks into Oghuz ("Common") and Oghur in central Asia. Oghuz will still be in Mongolia for centuries to come. Oghur Turks will be behind the Urals.

>Goths cross the Baltic Sea.

>First Germanic Rhoticism affects the Scandinavian remainers who aren't Goths

>beer is already part of the Germanic vocabulary by this date at the latest

>West Germanic speakers cross into Germania and assimilate the Celts they find there.

>0 AD

>Germans invade everything, splintering all cross the continent.

>Völkerwanderung. Attila arrives in the east with his mounted multicultural mercenary horde.


>In Asia, Oghuz finally starts to break up. Siberian Turkic breaks off first. In subsequent centuries the three still "mutually intelligible" Turkic clusters that wikipedia calls Oghuz (Turkish+), Kipchak and Karluk will take form.

>Cumans, the first indisputably Oghuz-speaking race of Turks, arrive in Germanic Europe

>Seljluks invade the Near East

And having thought about this at little more since, I realise chronology isn't even the primary argument against borrowing from Turkic. There exists a correspondence rhyme of:

deer, Tier, djór <: deuzą <: *Post too long. Click here to view the full text.


Japanese ohaiyou with english "hi"

File: 1449631910852.jpg (2.71 KB, 200x57, 200:57, Aramaic.jpg)


How long do you think would it take learning Aramaic?

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Yes, and because I'd like to study Ancient Near Eastern cultures in the future. Also to swindle the גוים.


Fluent reader here.

Honestly, best to start with Hebrew. The two languages are very close, but there is a shit ton of materials to learn Hebrew, but very few to learn Aramaic.

From scratch, will take 2 or 3 years to be able to read the New Testament in Aramaic I think, but depends on dedication and talent.

One thing: to learn the real pronunciation, you'll have to learn a bit of Arabic, because only arabs pronounce most of the consonants correctly. Don't learn the shitty ashkenazi accent, it's ridiculous.

By the way, they dubbed the "Jesus Film" (1979 i think) in Classical Syriac, with native speakers (of modern dialects, but reading old syriac).

Try that also:


It's hours of syriac prayers with the text in PDF.


just learn a bunch of more useful semitic languages and then aramaic will just come passively



gang gang



LOL no.

File: 8ca7a0ff6e9c7dd⋯.jpg (10.64 KB, 173x291, 173:291, download (1).jpg)


does one exist that translates full sentences?

4 posts omitted. Click reply to view.



because you're experts, I assume


File: e3538b846ec27b2⋯.png (45.39 KB, 642x571, 642:571, Capture.PNG)



Thats for single words not sentences


No. It would be so bad it wouldn't be worth it.

Classical languages are attested over time across many dialects. The orthography and grammar used will vary from manuscript to manuscript precluding the use of algorithmic translation into English. You could translate English into unnatural Old English (9th Century West Saxon) but the opposite is virtually impossible.

inb4... Latin, Ancient Greek, Classical Hebrew and Classical Arabic aren't really dead languages, they're just not first languages. They all have a standard constructed form that has been in unbroken continuous use since a point in history. Their early forms suffer from the same problems as Old English. It's only because of neo-Latin and Catholic grammarians that Google can translate into Latin.



it shouldn't be that hard to work with the grammar, it's pretty standard stuff for an IE language

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I want to study a semitic language because of their uniqueness, but I can't decide between Arabic and Hebrew. Arabic is more widely used, but Hebrew seems easier to read, write, and speak and has the added bonus of being the only dead language to ever be revived. what does /lang/ think?
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lol you're going to be so disappointed when you learn all that shit uses English in board rooms almost entirely full of goys, and all anyone does in Hebrew is make bad music and navel gaze



even the Israeli elite uses English; that's the key to international business because English speakers rule the world. only job Hebrew gets you outside Israel is teaching Hebrew.



> only job Hebrew gets you outside Israel is teaching Hebrew.

or summer camp counselor for petty bourgeois Jews.



it's actually aliens who rule the world; you need to learn klingon



good luck finding materials

File: 1426799185291.png (6.32 KB, 267x189, 89:63, a conlang.png)


Does this board support the learning and/or the construction of fictional or artificial languages?
19 posts and 5 image replies omitted. Click reply to view.


You could get away with making a conlang thread on >>>/esperanto/. Threads made in other languages are subject to deletion but it's pretty much just if they are spam or if they are reported.


File: ac3d16d643d9118⋯.jpg (30.15 KB, 820x566, 410:283, 1469842930725-1.jpg)

>all these a posteriori conlangs

revolting desu



It's more an assemblage than a construction. It's a snapshot of various aspects of different dialects at various points in time. That's not particularly close to what people are talking about with modern Hebrew, Esperanto or Interlingua.



This tbh. A good a posteriori language is one that diverges from the source language(s) so much or in unique enough ways that it's not immediately recognisable or classifiable as an obvious a posteriori language.


File: f80d0a52eee62a1⋯.jpg (21.02 KB, 270x445, 54:89, hippy.jpg)

I only learn free-range gluten-free languages free of GMOs and chemicals, maaaaan

File: 813f7936ecfa7f8⋯.pdf (1.58 MB, npt_10_consonants_c.pdf)


Hey, /lang/;

Have you accepted Luciano Canepari as your lord and saviour?


I dont belive in any gods


File: fbb2bea74239019⋯.jpg (25.79 KB, 600x750, 4:5, 5eb.jpg)



The Dictionary is my God.



have you heard of vape chugging?

its like beer butt chugging but you tend to blow smoke out of your ass.


File: 966bc41a4229ff9⋯.jpg (199.88 KB, 900x1200, 3:4, DNwzIqCW0AADQmB.jpg)

canIPA is the eighth cardinal sin

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I started studying Latin a couple days ago. Now I'm wondering who else here knows some or wants to
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>complecti = cingere

I guess it's based on Italian, doesn't it make too many assumptions on what's intuitive? Assuming you don't speak Italian of course.



Cingere is a latin word too.

in that case it's saying Complecti (also a latin word) is similar to cingere.

I haven't read too much of the book, but it's supposed to be entirely in latin, with explanations and stuff on the sidebar (that are in latin too).




I'm really enjoying this so far


estne haec pars siti morta?

sit iucundus si apud nos aliquando latine loqui possimus, socii, de quibuslibet rebus

per unum annum circiter latinam discens sum, sed nunc, quod ad finem universitatis sum, parum eam studere possum

nuper legebam ipse librum de lingua latina per se illustrata usque ad capitulum in quo ille servus, a suo domino romano fugitus, cum puella sua per mare inferum navigabant et ea ei de deo cristianis loquebatur postquam navis eorum prope mersa erat, librum optimum esse puto, marcus puer improbus at iucundissimus est

si Anki utimini, vobis monere possum de his quattuor fasciculis(decks), nomina:

1. DCC Core Latin Complete

2. Lingua Latina

3. Medieaval Latin

4. Wheelock's Latin - Complete vocabulary

pax vobiscum amici


The pic in >>397 should have "ancillam", not "ancilla". The grill is being seen in that sentence, not seeing.

File: 1415044801987.png (2.27 MB, 1271x1708, 1271:1708, Uncle_Sam_(pointing_finger….png)


What have you done to practice your target language today?
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went buy some groceries :^)


memrise as always



>bumping a 10 year old thread


File: e47bac219332e78⋯.jpg (123.78 KB, 720x637, 720:637, 1540809147257.jpg)




Changed what my target language even is

File: 067116cde5d739e⋯.jpg (90.96 KB, 1200x1200, 1:1, minecraft_ytbrs.jpg)



I'm a french student and I wish to learn english.

I recently buy a book, in english, to try to learn by reading and translate with internet when it's necessary. But it's not easy to still concentred when you will stop your reading to search a word, and it make the story hard to follow and it makes the book boring (I've never read this book before)

Now, I try to play video games in english but I meet the same problem than above.

How can I learn english without be bored and withn't much money ?

2 posts omitted. Click reply to view.



What kind of words do you struggle with most? I mean, are they basic vocabulary or specialised technical terms? If the latter, then you don't really have to worry much; even most native speakers would struggle with a lot of those. If you have to look up simple words like "slithering", "elbow" or "doll", though, you should just keep doing what you're doing; the only way to learn a word is to find out what it means, and these days that's usually done online... especially if you can't ask a native speaker in person.

Anyway, I personally struggle with even the most basic words in every language except Finnish and English (and even in them sometimes because my brain is shit), so I may not be the best person to give you advice on memorisation.


This, but beware that idioms, jokes and set expressions of various kinds are commonly replaced with equivalents rather than translated literally.



Can you have french subtitles in the game? Then you could hear the word while seeing the translation


File: 9b517b091370358⋯.jpg (24.32 KB, 176x179, 176:179, 1315764322935.jpg)


anyway, learning any language will require patience and time and it WILL be boring at times.



Watch English movies/shows with English subtitles. A lot of input is good.


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The land where Celts lived & where Celtic languages were spoken.

And where they remain today.

6 posts and 1 image reply omitted. Click reply to view.



>in that case entire France and northern Italy and Switzerland and Austria are Celtic as well

They were fucking retard. Even Galatia in Greece was Celtic, hence the name...

Found the retarded anglo-mutt



Why can't anyone upload dubbed content in Irish somewhere? Fucking tg4 is blocked outside Ireland, even with VPNs.

Desperately looking for the Irish dub of South Park.



Celtiberian is directly attested in writing and has a small corpus of three texts and several essentially illegible ostraca.

Celtiberian "Q-Celtic" is not closely related to Breton or any of the insular languages for that matter. It's apparently closest to the Lepontic Celtic language but the spelling is so irregular and the corpus so small, it's been hard to place it with certainty.


>asturian WEWUZ


pretty much they ruled most of Europe for ages.

File: 6b74fdb799894b5⋯.png (14.38 KB, 627x554, 627:554, 1523005024479.png)


What's the next little logical language to learn?




Limburgish? It's transitional between German and Dutch, so by learning it you could impress both your German and Dutch friends. Or just go straight for Dutch. Yiddish is also an option, or even Danish if you're into vikings and shit and/or want to learn Norwegian and/or Swedish in the future.


...or are you asking for a logical language with few speakers that you should learn? Then I'd say Finnish not even shilling :DDD because it's much more logical than German and has less than a tenth of the speakers that German has, and on top of that it's not even Indo-European. However, a huge chunk of the vocabulary would seem familiar as we have literally thousands of loanwords from Swedish (and more recently English) in addition to ancient loanwords from various IE languages. The syntax is SAE to the core, it has the smallest number of phonemes in all of Europe and is regular as fuck. The informal spoken language would at times not even be mutually intelligible with the formal written language to someone who only learned the formal written language (or vice versa), and there are lots of dialects that aren't always fully mutually intelligible with other dialects.



Well I figured French would be good since I want to transition into romance languages but I'll give your ideas a shot



Well, if you want to get into Romance langauges, then you're right that French would probably be the best choice. AFAIK it has some features in common with German that aren't SAE but maybe something like "EU headquarters language area", too. And of course, knowing French would give you access to obscure Québécois and Congolese memes, which you could share with the rest of us to trigger the smug Québécois and/or Congolese memers who'd never share their memes with outsiders.

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So I spent the day browsing through a Russian-English dictionary, and have come to realize learning Russian is so fucking easy. Except for the cursive handwriting, which is screwed up.

Prefixes and suffixes are helpful.

What I'd really like to get my hands on is a text file of all russian words and let my computer skills do the work decyphering it for the lulz.

I'm not sure if it is the dictionary I'm using or a specific dialect they are examining but this book seems to use the accute accent marke over alot of vowels, and I'm not talking about "ё" and "й" but а, е, и, о, у, ю, я where I see a lot of а е и о у ю я.

This dictionary is about 20 years old. Clinton was president when it was published but no computer or technology terms seemed to made it to print.
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the alphabet is like the only really easy part



I'm actually starting to suspect they're just LARPing because I've done Russian and I'm the same as you, the alphabet is the easiest part. It's only people who haven't studied Russian who think it's the hardest part.



I am not sure if it is easy.

By the way, 'ё' is like Yo!, and there is a tendency replacing it with 'e' since it is quite obvious, where to pronounce 'ye' and 'yo'

'й' is like consonant sound of 'u', the beginning of sound.


sh (like in shell) is ш.

Шалом (Shalom) for example.

ch (iike in channel) is ч.

Чугун (cast iron)

And щ is like in shit, where sh- is pronounced softly. Imagine some beaner pronouncing shit.

And russian is too difficult for other speakers, since it has too many words that just don't follow rules.

And many words have just too many conjunctions, like spanish, but worse, since there is really no order, that can be described in 3-4 rules.



I'm surprised nobody posted this before



Teacher of Russian for foreigners itt, ask you questions.

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