[ / / / / / / / / / / / / / ] [ dir / agatha2 / animu / hydrus / islam / ita / jp / kc / sunny ]

/leftpol/ - Left Politics

Catalog   Archive

July 2018 Transparency Report
Comment *
File *
Password (Randomized for file and post deletion; you may also set your own.)
* = required field[▶ Show post options & limits]
Confused? See the FAQ.
Show oekaki applet
(replaces files and can be used instead)

Allowed file types:jpg, jpeg, gif, png, webm, mp4, pdf
Max filesize is 16 MB.
Max image dimensions are 15000 x 15000.
You may upload 5 per post.

File: 49caf6e0b418de8⋯.jpg (294.7 KB, 800x550, 16:11, e1ef91295b33b0066a68f1fcf1….jpg)


Read the Rules and FAQ before posting

Board Log: https://sys.8ch.net/log.php?board=leftpol

New Rules



◦Only make shitposts,


◦quote an entire thread

◦make a no context link-post

◦Bump multiple last page threads rapidly

◦post content broadly illegal in many jurisdictions, including inciting terrorism and lolicon.

◦make data mining threads, this includes suspicious links, discord/facebook advertising, and inexplicable polling

◦make zero-effort sectarian threads, "yfw tankies/trots/ancoms think…" etc.

/leftpol/ is a left wing board. If you want to argue with /leftpol/ about not socialism, race realism, Zionism, The invisible hand, the political implications of your infidelity fetish, or any other dustbin theories, Post it in containment instead. otherwise off-topic OPs will be pruned.


-Why are there two leftypols now?

"Lmao WIP"

449 posts and 76 image replies omitted. Click reply to view.
Post last edited at



>waaaaaaaaaaaaaaah ban everyone who disagrees with me

Back to /leftypol/.

File: 6914cccad2a4c83⋯.jpg (274.2 KB, 500x793, 500:793, bba0809ec89aa3c529026eeaea….jpg)


I started reading Thomas More's Utopia recently and was wondering if we could get a thread going about left wing literature. Anyone else read this and have thoughts on the book? Can it be considered proto-socialist?

349 posts and 135 image replies omitted. Click reply to view.


File: b432e6fba3284bf⋯.jpg (16.97 KB, 190x266, 5:7, 518d13efdd100f44091c97f3fb….jpg)


>thread full of leftist resources

>leftist resources don't exist

File: 8531560a189e840⋯.jpg (77.54 KB, 726x636, 121:106, 3ff31ca.jpg)


post all your totally undeserved bans/screenshots of mod abuse here, and stop clogging up the rest of the catalog.

445 posts and 130 image replies omitted. Click reply to view.



>Hi again, /leftypol/ BO. Care to give your thoughts about this? >>80581


>Respond to this Cockshott article >>80488






I told them that counter-terroism is necessary in the transition period


no screenshot but I was banned for calling Orwell a hypocrite and saying MLK was an adulterer. what followed was a bunch of "dodging the assumption" anti-American bs and then a banhammer….not on them, BUT me ofc.



this and /pol/ would get wind of it, decide they hate pedos because it suits their ends atm, and autistically screech to Pigfarmer McRapeface until he used it as a pretext to kick us off the site and then claim the IP loss was because of Soros pedo ring iloominaughty jews or something but not Freemasons tho amirite lol XD


This, they think taking everything seriously and banning wrongthink will make things improve. What was good about /leftypol/ was that discussion was possible for long enough for most ideologies and opinions to either be thoroughly btfo, or at least have their flaws laid bare. Can't do that now with Body Odour hotpocketing the guy trying to defend the indefensible before he runs out of sophistry.


I came for the exclusive Streisand-enhanced gossip this site had after the First Exodus, lurked and resource-extracted tech and porn for about a year, then started posting, then started posting on /leftypol/ after everybody autistically screeched at me to gb2 there. Came here after they gave me a month-long bannu for contradicting Hoochie. I may be on the spectrum but even I can get such a plain message that I'm not wanted, so I came here and stayed. It's slower but that place has turned into r/death_to_america so I'm stayin here for the duration.



>criticise Orwell and MLK

>b& for not hating the West enough

hahaha oh wow



If you really want to fuck with BO just make /MLMpol/ or something, fill it with ML and Maoist agitprop and facetious vulgar anti-imperialist posting dialed up to 11. Then regularly post polemics on /leftypol/ denouncing them for revisionism and being "soft on Americanism" and trying to bait tankies away from the board.

File: 250b518875fe20c⋯.jpg (65.68 KB, 606x602, 303:301, socialdemocuckoldry.jpg)


Is this the board where you request a drawfag make a picture or two about a communist daddy hate-fucking a social democrat twink while the twink apologizes for everything from Nazi Germany to revisionism and killing Rosa?


the only reason people hate Social Democrats of because of "muh rosa luxemburg" meme. Luxemburg hated Vladimir Lenin very much, and I'll be a pimple on a doggie's ass if he wasn't a real Marxist.


File: b00d42886138089⋯.png (392.97 KB, 1408x3488, 44:109, ae1558201fa8b12cf3586a9077….png)


Yeah, I'm sure Rosa is the only reason to hate socdems.



I for one dislike them for not going far enough in terms of economic equality and for pandering to democracy.

Vladimir Lenin was a communist regardless of what Rosa thought.


File: e62af4991e3f46a⋯.jpeg (61.51 KB, 500x500, 1:1, pvda_bezorgt_over_mogelij….jpeg)


That's the wrong PvdA flag. Wim Kok is from the Dutch PvdA. That flag is from the Belgian PVDA which is a communist party.

File: bd16c2464ff7ddb⋯.pdf (31.23 KB, a short introduction to ma….pdf)

File: 3924a83a285408d⋯.pdf (1.05 MB, frederic-lordon-willing-sl….pdf)

File: 1ecbf25d5ad274e⋯.jpg (317.98 KB, 780x520, 3:2, Spinoza.jpg)


In >>56417, someone asked me to write a short introduction to Spinoza, which I did, as attached to the thread. I also included an english translation of Frederic Lordon's essay which explains directly how capitalism manages to still quench all class consciousness on an individual level using Spinozist conceptual tools. I urge anyone who's interested in theory to check out Spinozist thought, maybe we could get a discord started if enough people are interested in getting familiar with a key thinker of western philosophy.

46 posts and 2 image replies omitted. Click reply to view.



Bourdieu's Distinction is a good read.

>Is he a good starting point or is too complex for a beginner?

He's very difficult if you start by the ethics (especially if you don't skip book 1) but there's no reason a patient and dedicated person can't get a firmer grasp on his thought eventually.

There is no shortcut really, try to listen to online lectures about Spinoza and eventually you'll feel more and more accustomed to his concepts and way of thinking. There are other messages ITT suggesting to be familiar with stoician and epicurean philosophy which is a great tip.


Spinoza was at best a minor annoyance and at worst an obnoxious "BUT MUH RATIONALISM"



Please at least pretend you know what you're talking about.


File: 4f90703bd872c62⋯.pdf (3.78 MB, Bourdieu_Pierre_On_Televis….pdf)


Not at all relevant to the thread, but I read pdf related by Bourdieu and thought it was a great rundown on everything that is wrong with (privately-owned, commercialized) television and mass media.



don't tell me what to do, faggot.

File: 15ce4585a1eec1f⋯.jpg (64.88 KB, 750x534, 125:89, Dkm46EKV4AEqm30.jpg)


Not much to add to the post attached.

78 posts and 12 image replies omitted. Click reply to view.



>frog may-mays instead of counterarguments

>the absloute state of /leftpol/


hi falseflag



Tolkien thought your waifu was an idiot.




>>frog may-mays instead of counterarguments

>Implying calling the USSR "state capitalism" and then randomly equating that to feudalism is something that merits more than a meme response



>a dictatorial/oligarchic socioeconomic system isn't statecap



Socialism isn't "oligarchic", it implies the common ownership of the MOP. Read a book.



Amermutt soldiers are the closest thing to orcs in today's world.

File: ac9751f7fa09783⋯.webm (3.09 MB, 512x288, 16:9, NotThisAgain.webm)


Anyone else getting tired of this shit? Youtuber TIK put out a Hitler was really socialist video and I couldn't get much farther then this clip. I just can't stomach this kinda of shit yet idiots keep making the same stupid arguments.


Stop watching opinionstube and do something else.


originally, maybe but he betrayed that notion long before the Night Of The Long Knives by ousting Feder.

File: 018a1a9d93cf083⋯.jpg (436.07 KB, 1600x851, 1600:851, 1_qvxrf6ZMRt0xtCUyssCRew.jpg)


The experiences of the USSR, Cuba, Vietnam, etc prove that "socialism in one country" does not work. Capitalism is a global system and the drive for profit will penetrate any "socialist" nation eventually.

The only way to achieve socialism and end capitalism is through the dissolution of the nation-state and borders. Competition among workers of the world promoted by neoliberalism via opening up of borders ensures the creation of a global proletariat.

As neoliberalism would continue to open up all parts of the world for exploitation, zero tariffs and easy flow of goods would become necessary to keep up profits. Therefore neoliberalism if continued, would both unite workers throughout the world and keep them in tighter chains through increased exploitation.

Once the nation-state system dissolves under neoliberalism, the bourgeoise would not be able to retreat to social democracy or fascism in order to escape crisis. A globalized proletariat, once bound together by rank and file unions led by a vanguard party, would then be able to completely dismantle the capitalist system and move towards communism.

Neoliberalism is a necessary evil.

41 posts and 5 image replies omitted. Click reply to view.


Neoliberalism also killed more people than Marxist-Leninism and Marxist-Leninism-Maoism combined. Are you really brave or just stupid or somewhere in between?



Literacy is borgeious.




>Nations existed sense hunter gather times, what is recent is the politicalization of nations.

No. You need to learn what the definition of a nation is.



>The only way to achieve socialism and end capitalism is through the dissolution of the nation-state and borders.

Why would anyone in an even semi-successful country want that to happen?



I don't see why the falling apart of the USSR means that socialism (in one country) is always doomed to ultimately fail. I don't want future socialism to be an exact replica of the Soviet model but I have my doubts about how realistic the advent of global socialism is.

>Cuba is adopting market reforms and privatization. China and Vietnam have fully embraced capitalism.

Don't be an idealist; considering how isolated its conditions are, a country like Cuba needs to liberalize to a certain extent to survive. I have some faith the government is still aiming at socialism, and as long as a full bourgeoisie doesn't develop I don't think the legalization of private property will pose serious problems to reverting to socialism when the time is ripe. Cuba still adheres to a large number of socialist policies.

File: 434827d28cd772a⋯.png (207.72 KB, 1500x785, 300:157, open-graph-icon.png)


Why are they right about literally everything? I've followed a lot of news sources but so far nothing beats the analysis given by the WSWS. Its extremely revealing looking at their past analysis of events such as 9/11 and realizing that while publications like the Nation took a reactionary stance, the WSWS stood by socialist principles and presented a scientific analysis of events in line with Marxism.


56 posts and 11 image replies omitted. Click reply to view.



>Closing the borders

"Closing borders" is bourgeois police killing proletarians. No more, no less. You're quite the anarchist.

>what exactly is it that you imagine mass economic immigration does to help 3rd-worlders, anyway?

Ask migrants.

>Do you seriously think evacuating 6 billion desperately poor, even if it were somehow possible, will fix something?

6 billion people can't/don't want to come anyway. And do you seriously think killing those who try will fix something?



>the regulatory regimes that aid labor, and impede capital

What kind of a la-la-land do you live in?

>transnational corporate dictatorship

That's what we live in. That's what is "bound to the nation states". And that's what you support, you scab.

>the structure of law

Ever heard of class struggle?



>"Closing borders" is bourgeois police killing proletarians.

No, it's issuing less visas, and cracking down on illegal employers.

>Ask migrants.

Hmm, a few tens of millions of migrants, versus over a billion 1st-worlders, and several billion 3rd-worlders. Yah nah fuck off.

>6 billion people can't […] come anyway

Good first step, keep going..


>What kind of a la-la-land do you live in?

The kind with superior material conditions to the 3rd-world, as a direct result of successful labor agitation.

>That's what we live in.

To an extent, a far, far lesser extent than the 3rd-world.

>Ever heard of class struggle?

Sure thing. Maybe we should try spreading our material conditions abroad, rather than opening ourselves up to theirs?



>Who are we going to fight? Europe? Our FDI-dependent bitches in China? The economically and militarily microscopic paper tiger that is Russia?

There is a reason that capitalists around the world are increasing their military budgets.


That reason is simple. It is to prepare for world war. There's been increased sanctions placed on Iran, t*rkey, Russia, and now trade war threatened with China as well as tariffs threatened on Europe in order to expand up areas for exploitation and destroy competition for global hegemony. The global breakdown of capitalism with its increasing asset and speculative bubbles is bound to explode and the US is clearly making a conscious decision to use its military power to retain its hegemony.

Who "we"(identifying with the United States seems to imply that loyalty to nation is greater for you than loyalty to the global proletariat) are going to fight depends entirely on many variable factors but whether the US can easily crush its opponents matters far less than the fact that millions of regular people will suffer due to the coming conflicts. I highly suggest you take time and read Capital by Marx to have a greater understanding of how capitalism functions and to look at the example of WW1 and WW2 to gain a picture of how capitalism restores its rate of profit.

>Closing the borders to human rights arbitrage is the first step to giving economic leverage to workers, so we can put the screws to porky. Seriously, what exactly is it that you imagine mass economic immigration does to help 3rd-worlders, anyway? Do you seriously think evacuating 6 billion desperately poor, even if it were somehow possible, will fix something?

The fact that you believe that "6 Billion" people will need to be "evacuated" sPost too long. Click here to view the full text.



And it is a bit sad that I have to explain what economic migrants from third world countries have to gain from moving to the west. Places destroyed by imperialism and filled with life threatening conditions. Of course they move to improve their material standard of living. As for what it will "fix", it wont fix anything besides providing temporary relief to the most oppressed, which is a net good. Of course only the overthrow of capitalism will help the world but to do that the nation-state would also need to dissolve, and tightening up migration serves mainly to increase the power of the nation-state. By closing off migration, workers of the world become more subservient to the nation rather than their class, and nationalism will serve to make workers of the world fight against one another rather than fight against their oppressors.

>Look, the regulatory regimes that aid labor, and impede capital, are bound in the nation state right now, correct? Since our borders delineate where these regulations are and aren't in effect, who benefits by weakening these borders against other nation states with laws that favor capital more against labor?

As I had pointed out earlier in this post >>82356 and also by an elementary understanding of history, it is clear that labor unions function as a nationalist arm of labor. After all the fascist regimes of Hitler, Franco, Salazar, etc, all could hold on to power in large part due to labor unions deciding to fuse with the capitalist state in order to quell strikes and working class discontent. In the US, the largest labor unions like the AFL-CIO have a long history of supporting imperialism abroad as well as a long history of making sure that strikes are confined and don't spill over to the wider proletariat. An unaccountable union bureaucracy breeds corruption and collusion with the capitalist class, their goal is to give out crumbs in order to quell working class opposition and contain it. Rank and file workers unions led by a vanguard party is the only proven way to overthrow the capitalist class and for this to occur the union bureaucracy must be desPost too long. Click here to view the full text.

File: fc1113e188f6294⋯.png (135.67 KB, 245x367, 245:367, ClipboardImage.png)


Is there anything worse than armchair leftists and political hobbyism in general? What the fuck is the point of reading theory if you don't plan to participate in IRL politics? Are there people who seriously reading theory just to masturbate over their knowledge in internet communities? Reading theory is a waste of time if you don't work to put it into praxis.

Post anti-armchair memes and destroyed chairs ITT

11 posts and 1 image reply omitted. Click reply to view.


Saging in a brainlet thread.


File: bd80e4a21fe3076⋯.jpg (7.08 KB, 192x192, 1:1, 12177.jpg)

the fact you were born and then your dad fucked you as soon as you came out of the womb



Which party?



who ya gettin mad at? lol



>red socdems

>"Everyone except me is a revisionist" starterpack

File: 47c6d8a7e39243d⋯.png (172 KB, 526x554, 263:277, antifansen.png)


Reminder that "ANTIFA" is an agent provocateur organization, and participating in it not only wastes your efforts, but also makes the left look like violent loons.

31 posts and 6 image replies omitted. Click reply to view.


There's a guide here on forming an antifa group that is a must read:


Ninety-five percent of it falls under this part: "Track white nationalist activity." The reason UTR fucked up the neo-Nazis so bad is all those guys were livestreaming everything while showing their faces, and local antifa groups figured out who they were, or in a lot of cases, already knew who they were. The vehicular attack on the crowd was extraordinarily bad P.R. for the fash but the info on people who attended brought consequences. People lost their jobs; their family members disowned them, etc. The most effective groups will track these guys to the ends of the earth.

Where I live, I will say straight-up that the neo-Nazi groups are more prone to acts of aggression against the left. Not against antifa. I mean they will show up at a normie immigrant rights' group screaming "strong nation" in their faces and flip their tables over. This is in America. Most people (talking about the general public here) will not tolerate neo-Nazis however and where the antifa groups can be successful is outing them so people can recognize who it is when those things happen. Act local. One of the things the fash in America do is organize clandestine meet-up groups in bars and will try to start shit once they have a few drinks, so you can get the bar owners and so on to recognize these people and kick them out.

Grassroots community awareness really.

If anyone thinks anti-fascism is going to actually change anything, then they're mistaken and I agree. But when I got involved in socialist groups, my impression of the anti-fascists changed because I saw what neo-Nazis were doing first hand. People I know were singled out and targeted by local Nazis. If you think you can just organize for socialism and not have to think about self defense or getting harassed, or even the possibility you might get attacked, then you're extremely naive.


IDPOL and identitarian prejudice are fundamentally damaging ideals in their very nature, and often do breed authfasc beliefs, do they not?


they also fight in packs which is nigger behavior.


File: 0ecea03bfda816c⋯.jpg (30.37 KB, 1024x576, 16:9, df7da30d943f5316b89b30259c….jpg)


Nothing wrong with being a violent loon. Just gotta loon to the right tune.

>Chimp outs over trolls waving kekistaini flags is fucking dumb

>Unless they moderate 4chan or reddit. Which they very well might. Inquire.

>Ruining some poor guys small business by randomly breaking windows is some nigger shit

>He probably is a cuck that deserves it though. Inquire.

>Not everyone who disagrees with you is a reactionary

>Not everyone is worth listening too to begin with. Inquire.



Oh, so far the moment the guy who ran the girl over in Cville actually did it and is yer boi and leftists beware. Your mental gymnastics are impressive.

File: fb350ff0266a0e8⋯.jpg (130.57 KB, 1020x681, 340:227, heads-pig-slaughter.jpg)


2 posts omitted. Click reply to view.



They don't own the means of production. According to marxism, a Nepalese tea vendor making 2$ a day is a porky, while a CEO on a 5 million salary is a worker.



CEOs often own a large portion of the company as compared to other workers who may have retirement investments in that company. They are bourgeoisie. Now, in theory, it is possible for a CEO to be a manager of working class status, but this is often not the case in practice.





A problem with Marxists is their tendency to divide the masses of people into different class groups and using the hierarchy of groups to make it seem as if only the proletariat is bound in chains. Under capital all classes are enslaved. The bourgeoise and the petty-bourgeoise are both enslaved by capital and thus have to engage in anti-social and immoral activities in order to preserve themselves. This leads to a rise in mental illness in society which is evidenced by the high rates of depression afflicting all members of society including the top.

I think that Marxism needs to rebrand itself as the emancipatory vehicle of all people, not just the proletariat.


File: ff66e9917c4bb23⋯.webm (4.89 MB, 616x344, 77:43, ff66e9917c4bb2309411f6b24….webm)

That's fantastic, it'll motivate everybody to look up to the 1% and dream that they can too become one of them.

File: 75f3d521df6236f⋯.jpg (26.25 KB, 832x434, 416:217, Skeptic muke.jpg)


How would rate leftist youtubers who range from anarchist to Marxist-Leninists from a scale of 1-10.

99 posts and 13 image replies omitted. Click reply to view.



Well, remember there was a poster on /leftpol/ that said denying little children the ability to consent to sexual intercourse is "spooked"? Obviously that's unreasonable. I'm not here to discuss the age of consent in European countries. The rest I agree with you.


File: bb636318e5e2b8a⋯.gif (837.46 KB, 142x146, 71:73, 66bd51def430caab42ee8bc6cd….gif)



>doesn't like J Barg

>doesn't like Jim Profit

Shit taste



I don't necessarily like Adolf for more than being a figurehead who spoke well and knew how to rile up a crowd. and besides, you don't like me, I go farther and pretend you don't exist and now I'm basically talking to myself, ipso facto.


Lol, the "anarchists" were the pedo's all along. Maybe anarcho-capitalists and anarchists have more in common than meets the eye


File: 91a214d06b73309⋯.jpg (80.57 KB, 275x373, 275:373, lacan.jpg)


>Well the incident was that in a semi-hidden channel on Discord he fantasized with her her being a NKVD officer who rapes her for being a revisionist and then sends her to the gulag as she lays on the ground totally ruined.

It all makes so much sense.

File: df457469f54f665⋯.png (91.73 KB, 215x223, 215:223, 1507793796.png)


What are your stances on social issues leftpol? Ive always been curious as a lurker.

72 posts and 15 image replies omitted. Click reply to view.



Here's a statistic for you. Gays are 1% of humanity. Therefore nobody should care about them.


If nobody wants to talk to them, following nobody's example would mean talking to them. I'd rather not.



Yet here you are, derailing thread after thread with your pedohebephila convincing us all that you're a narcissistic faggot.



This thread is about social issues. This is a social issue. What's difficult about that concept?




>Gender is a "spook" and should be openly mocked. There is literally nothing wrong with transgender people.

>gender is a spook that doesn’t exist but biological sex does exist

Now here is a point where you people go full retard.

If it's just a spook that doesn't exist then why do we even have transgender people in the first place? why do these people feel like the opposite gender so much to the point where some of them even go as far as to chop parts of their own bodies?

Do you know that the biological part do have a great influence in our behavior? do you know that hormones can completely change how a person think and behave? do you know that men and women have different main sex hormones that influence their behavior, their very minds, their likes and dislikes?

You people would love for your narrative that gender is just an oppressive imposition put on people to be true but back to the first two questions the answer is pretty obvious and simple, gender is something that you "feel" like, not something imposed upon you because if that was the case then trans/gay/homo/lesbian/whatever people wouldn't even exist in the first place because nobody in their right minds try to raise their kids to be gay, what happens is that homo people do have the brains of the opposite gender for some reason and that doesn't make gender a spook, on the contrary, it actually reinforces gender as something real.


File: b5bc06f344ecb76⋯.png (27.23 KB, 760x378, 380:189, 2008-10-29-102.png)

File: 6964b784a22d9df⋯.png (116.97 KB, 673x374, 673:374, millennials.png)


>millennials having children

Look, anon, I'm sorry to break this to you, but by most definitions, that's been happening for quite a while now. Even (you) may be a millennial!

>Most of what you're citing doesn't prove anything about the morality of an adult man sexing a teenage girl who wants his dong.

The stuff about the overwhelming majority being older men and younger girls, and the high divorce rate, suggesting pump&dump patterns? The other figures were more to point out how utterly unimportant this "issue" is.

>Or at least that used to be the case

[citation needed]

>The Democrats blatantly rigged the 2016 primary against Bernie Sanders

Birdnie's lead over Shrillary was just north of 10 percentage points. Big, but not the sort of landslide needed to guarentee a yuge scandal. I'll admit the fact that lawsuits and criminal trials haven't happened, even taking into account Sanders' own lack of assertiveness, is pretty pathetic.

>You've probably already gone past this figure.

By "dedicated socialists", I mean people who know what the labor/capitalist class distinction is, why left/right idpol are the exact same, and that socialism means something beyond "duh gubmint does stuff".


>Here's a statistic for you. Gays are 1% of humanity. Therefore nobody should care about them.

Maybe not nobody, but certainly a lot less people should spend energy on them, especially in areas (nearly all) they have little or nothing to do with.


>If it's just a spook that doesn't exist then why do we even have transgender people in the first place?

Post too long. Click here to view the full text.

File: a36cddd7a540bbb⋯.png (260.51 KB, 512x384, 4:3, Lucky.png)


Can you distill your theory in a 10-minute conversation? What would you say a leftist organizer needs to know or understand in order to do the organizing necessary to move beyond capitalism? What is the bare minimum amount of reading?


The most important thing is being able to talk to people without sperging out and connecting to their struggles. Reading every ounce of leftist theory won't necessarily give you that.

Delete Post [ ]
Previous [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15]
| Catalog | Nerve Center | Cancer
[ / / / / / / / / / / / / / ] [ dir / agatha2 / animu / hydrus / islam / ita / jp / kc / sunny ]